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This session will discuss the avenues for Title VI litigation after the Supreme Court's decision in Alexander v. Sandoval, 532 U.S. 275 (2001) and Gonzaga Univ. v. Doe, 536 U.S. 273, (2002). While Sandoval and Gonzaga have narrowed the application of 42 U.S.C. § 1983 and left few alternatives for enforcement directly under Title VI, several avenues of litigation remain for the enforcement of language access rights. Speakers will discuss Title VI cases before and after Sandoval, the impact of Gonzaga, and the current enforcement role of the Department of Justice and other federal agencies.


Michael Mulé, Staff Attorney, Empire Justice Center (Rochester, NY)
Amy Taylor, Language Access Project Coordinator, Legal Services NYC

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